Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke.
The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful.
Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology.
Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists.
Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of Leonardo Da Vinci :. | Portrait of Ginevra de' Benci | The Last Supper | Portrait of Ginerva de'Benci-u | The Battle of Anghiari | Portrait of Cecilia Gallarani |
Related Artists:staffan hallstrom
Staffan Hallström, född 1914 i Stockholm, död 1976, var en svensk målare och tecknare.
Staffan Hallström föräldrar var Gustaf Hallström, antikvarie vid Statens historiska museum och Astrid Hallström, född Berg. Han studerade på Gerlesborgsskolan, Tekniska skolan 1932-34 och vid Kungliga Konsthögskolan i Stockholm 1935-41 för bland annat Isaac Grenewald och Olle Hjortzberg 1935-41. Han företog studieresor till Frankrike, Italien, Nederländerna och Belgien.
Staffan Hallström bodde och arbetade under 1940-talet i Saltsjö-Duvnäs, där han hyrde rum av konstnären Olle Nyman. Han fick då kontakt med Evert Lundqvist, som inspirerade honom och gav honom stöd. Tillsammans med Olle Nyman, Evert Lundqvist och Roland Kempe ingick han i Saltsjö-Duvnäs-gruppen. Senare hade han även atelje på Varvsgatan och kombinerad bostad och atelje vid Brunkebergstorg.
År 1946 hade han sin debututställning på Konstnärshuset i Stockholm. Han slog igenom med utställningen Hundra målningar på Konstakademien 1961 och spåddes då lysande framtid framför allt av skulptören Torsten Renqvist.
Staffan Hallström, arbetade i nyexpressionistisk stil och bland hans mest kända verk är Ingens hundar från 1958, som köptes in av Moderna museet. Detta motiv målade han sedan i olika versioner. Tillsammans med Lasse Andreasson gestaltade han 1972 Masmos tunnelbanestation med verket Ta ned solen i tunnelbanan, målningar på plåt utefter spårväggarna. Han är representerad på bland annat Moderna och Nationalmuseum. .
Henry de Groux
Henry de Groux (1866 in Brussels - 1930 in Marseilles) was a Belgian Symbolist painter, sculptor and lithographer. His 1889 painting Christ aux Outrages, widely described as his masterwork, depicted Jesus being attacked by a mob. Later in life, he produced many works depicting the horrors of the First World War.
Ride of the Valkyries (ca. 1890)
Royal Museums of Fine Arts, Brussels, BelgiumDe Groux was a member of les XX, but was expelled when he refused to have his works displayed in the same gallery as Vincent van Gogh. He subsequently moved to Paris, where he befriended Emile Zola; during the social unrest resulting from the Dreyfus affair, de Groux acted as one of Zola's bodyguards.
As well, de Groux was a fervent diarist; beginning in 1892, he produced 18 volumes detailing the life of a European artist in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2002, his descendants donated these volumes to the Institut national d'histoire de l'art; selected excerpts were published in 2007 Henry de Groux 1866-1930 - journal - Henry De Groux, Rodolphe Rapetti, Pierre Wat - Editions Kime.Johann Christian Brand
(March 6, 1722 ?C June 12, 1795)was an Austrian painter (son of the German painter Christian Hilfgott Brand (1694-1756) who taught in Vienna with Karl Aigen) and brother of Friedrich August Brand.Johann Christian Brand influenced ending the baroque era of landscape painting. He died in Vienna.
Johann Christian Brand was born in Vienna on March 6, 1722. Influential in ending the baroque era, Johann studied at the Vienna Academy from 1736.He was awarded with the titles Kammermaler* in 1766 and "Professor of Landscape Drawing" in 1772.