LEONARDO da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519 Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke. The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful. Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology. Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists. Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of LEONARDO da Vinci :. | Mona Lisa (mk08) | Rule fur the proportion of the human figure | The Virgin and Child with St Anne (detail) s | The Annunciation | Mona Lisa |
Related Artists:Arent De Gelder
was one of Rembrandt's last pupils while in Amsterdam, studying in his studio from 1661 to 1663. He was not only one of the most talented of Rembrandt's pupils, but also one of his most devoted followers, for he was the only Dutch artist to paint in the tradition of Rembrandt's late style into the 18th century. CORNELIS VAN HAARLEM
Dutch painter (b. 1562, Haarlem, d. 1638,
Dutch painter and draughtsman, was one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in The Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist. Cornelis Corneliszoon was a member of the Mannerist school of Haarlem, which was highly influenced by the work of Bartholomeus Spranger, whose drawings were brought to Haarlem by Carel van Mander in 1585, and had a strong immediate effect. He painted mainly portraits as well as mythological and Biblical subjects. Initially Corneliszoon painted large-size, highly stylized works with Italianate nudes in twisted poses with a grotesque, unnatural anatomy. Later, his style changed to one based on the Netherlandish realist tradition. When his parents fled Haarlem in 1572, as the Spanish army laid siege to the city during the Eighty Years' War, Corneliszoon remained behind and was raised by the painter Pieter Pietersz., his first teacher. Later, Corneliszoon studied in Rouen, France and Antwerp, Belgium. Corneliszoon in 1583 received his first official commission from the city of Haarlem, a militia company portrait, the Banquet of the Haarlem Civic Guard. He later became city painter of Haarlem and received numerous official commissions. As a portrait painter, both of groups and individuals, he was an important influence on Frans Hals. Together with Carel van Mander, Hendrick Goltzius and other artists, Corneliszoon formed the Haarlem Academy or "Haarlem Mannerists". Probably this was a very informal grouping, perhaps meeting to draw nude models, and certainly to exchange artistic views. Corneliszoon also played a role in reorganizing the Haarlem artists' and artisans' Guild of St. Luke, eliminating its medieval organization and raising the status of the artists. Corneliszoon married Maritgen Arentsdr Deyman, the daughter of a mayor of Haarlem, sometime before 1603. marcus larson
Simon Marcus Larson, född 5 januari 1825, Lilla Örsätter, Åtvidaberg, död 25 januari 1864 i London, var en svensk målare. Han tillhörde Dusseldorfskolan och skildrade naturens krafter på ett romantiskt och dramatiskt sätt. Larson hade en kort karriär och avled vid 39 års ålder, men ses ändå som en av Sveriges främsta 1800-talskonstnärer.
1856 var Larson i Dusseldorf och på julafton skissade han på ett solnedgångsmotiv vid den bohuslänska kusten, men Larson drömde om att måla en större tavla, hans atelje var alltför trång. Så en dag när han satt i stans populäraste caf?? och drack öl fick han id??n att han skulle måla i caf??lokalen. Sagt och gjort så hyrde han lokalen i 14 dagar. Duken han spände upp var 10-12 fot hög och 18 fot bred.
Efter 10 dagar var tavlan klar. Tavlan ställdes ut på akademien och det byggdes en utsiktsramp för att åskådarna skulle få en överblick över tavlan, priset var 5 Silbergroschen per titt och det annonserades att intäkterna skulle gå till välgörande ändamål, vilket fick stort uppseende, särskilt bland övriga konstnärer, utställningen varade mellan 25 jan. och 15 feb. 1857 Tavlan ställdes också ut bland annat i Köln och Berlin sedan till Salon Carre i Paris där den hyllades. Därefter ställdes den också ut i Stockholm där Larson tänkte skänka tavlan till staten tillsammans med köpet av Vattenfall i Småland, men då Larson på hösten inte fick sälja nämnda tavla tog han ned den stora tavlan och tog den med sig när han lämnade Sverige och fortsatte sina resor, han visade den under några år, sista gången någon skrivit om tavlan var 1863, Efter Larsons död i London försvann tavlan.