LEONARDO da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519 Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke. The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful. Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology. Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists. Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of LEONARDO da Vinci :. | The muscles of Thorax and shoulders in a lebnden person | The Baptism of Christ | You branching of the Blutgefabe, anatomical figure with heart kidneys and Blutgefaben | Studies of horses | Madonna with the Yarnwinder |
Related Artists:Enoch Wood Perry, Jr.
(1831-1915) was a painter from the United States.
Perry was born in Boston on July 31, 1831. His father was Enoch Wood Perry, and mother was Hannah Knapp Dole. His maternal grandparents were Samuel Dole and Katherine Wigglesworth. The family moved to New Orleans with his family as a teenager in 1848 and attended its public schools. After working several years as a clerk in a commission house, Perry began formal art education. In 1852 he went to Europe for four years and studied with Emanuel Leutze at the Desseldorf Academy, Thomas Couture in Paris, and in Rome.Perry served as the U.S. Consul to Venice between 1856 and 1858. Upon returning to America, he opened a studio in Philadelphia.Niccolo di Pietro Gerini
Italian Painter, active ca.1368-1415
died in Florence in 1415, earned reputation of an important Italian painter. He represents giottesque school, in the tradition of the Andrea di Orcagna (1320-1368) and of Taddeo Gaddi. His father Pietro Geri is registered as a member of Lucas Guild in 1339. Niccolo worked mainly in Florence, although he also carried out commissions in Rome (Vatican), Pisa and Prato.
He was first recorded in 1368 as a member of the Arte dei Medici e Speziali in Florence but is identifiable with the Niccolo dipintore who collaborated with Jacopo di Cione on frescoes for the Guildhall of the Judges and Notaries in Florence in 1366. It is self-evident that he is the Niccolaio dipintore who worked with Jacopo di Cione on the altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin (presently in London, National Gallery) for St Pier Maggiore, Florence in 1370 and was paid 12 golden florins per disegnare la tavola dell altare in November of the same year. He designed the altarpiece and the elaborate throne canopy with his usual fine painting and detailed ornaments whilst Jacopo di Cione was depicting side saints. This altarpiece is amongst of very few largest commissioned in 14th century Florence. It was seemingly commissioned by Albizzi family.
He was collaborating with Jacopo di Cione on Coronation of the Virgin (Accademia, Florence) in 1372. Offner and Steinweg suggest that he was responsible for the design and fine painting and Jacopo for the execution of saints. It was commissioned by the mint of Florence Zecca Vecchia on the same year.
In 1383 Gerini again worked with Cione on a fresco of the Annunciation in the Palazzo dei Priori, Volterra. This fresco clearly shows the work of two very different artists: Niccolo di Pietro Gerini (design and very fine painting) and Jacopo di Cione (broadly painted saints and side decoration). In 1386 Niccolo frescoed the façade of the Bigallo, Florence. He also frescoed Sant Ambrogio church in Florence
Gerini performed the Crocefissione of St Felicita church in Florence.
His hand is clearly on sacrestia of the basilica of Saint Croce to Florence with Scenes of the life of Christ. Between 1391 and 1392 he worked in Prato where he frescoed Palazzo Datini, church of Saint Francisco with Lorenzo di Niccolo and Agnolo Gaddi.
He also frescoed capitolare of the church of Saint Francisco, Pisa.
Very typically for Gothic depiction Gerini figures have large chins, sloping foreheads, and sharp noses whilst their bodies are squat and frontally displaced.
Another important artist Lorenzo di Niccol?? di Martino was trained in Niccol?? di Pietro Gerini workshop and later collaborated with the master but was not his son as sometimes erroneously stated. Gerini though had a son Bindo di Niccolo di Pietro Gerini, born in 1363, who is registered as member of Lucas Guild since 1408.
Niccolo di Pietro Gerini works can be found in major art galleries of Rome, Vatican, Florence, London, Milan, New York, Los Angeles, Amsterdam, Berlin, Paris, St Petersburg, Boston, Cambridge, Budapest, Birmingham, Pegalo, Prato, Pisa, Altenburg, Avignon, Denver and several other museums.Wolf Huber
Feldkirch ca 1480-Passau 1553