Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke.
The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful.
Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology.
Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists.
Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of Leonardo Da Vinci :. | Detail of Madonna of the Rocks | The Last Supper-l | Madonna with a Flower | Study for a kneeling Leda | Last Supper |
Related Artists:Thomas Murray
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. Please search for Thomas Murray (artist) in Wikipedia to check for alternative titles or spellings. Robert Braithwaite Martineau
English genre and portrait Painter, 1826-1869
was an English painter. He first trained as a lawyer and later entered the Royal Academy where he was awarded a silver medal. He studied under Pre-Raphaelite artist William Holman Hunt and once shared a studio with him. He died at the age of 43. He married Maria Wheeler and had two children with her. His most famous painting, "The Last Day in the Old Home" portrays a man who has brought ruin upon his family and can be seen at the Tate Gallery in London. Other paintings were bequeathed to the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and Liverpool Art Gallery by his daughter Helen. Other less well known paintings include "Kit's First Writing Lesson" and "Picciola". Antonie Waldorp
(The Hague, 28 March, 1803 - Amsterdam, 12 October, 1866) was a Dutch painter and a forerunner of the Hague School.
Anthonie Waldorp was the son of Abel de Saaijer Waldorp and Jacomina Godde, and the grandson of Jan Gerard Waldor, who was superintendent of the National Art Gallery. On February 25, 1824 he married Johanna Sophia Waldorp van Hove. At the wedding in The Hague there was a clerical error in the marital attachments, mistakenly registering Anthonie as Anthonie Waldorp instead of Saaijer Waldorp.
Shortly after his 23rd birthday, Anthonie decides to follow a career as a painter and became one of the precursors of the Hague School. Anthonie took an apprenticeship with the well known stage scenery painter Joannes Breckenheimer jr. (1772-1856) in The Hague, who was also the tutor of the well known painter Andreas Schelfhout.
Anthonie started painting stage sceneries like his grandfather. Later he focused on domestic and church interiors and portraits (people in 17th century costumes). Finally he specialized in landscapes, river and seascapes (paintings, drawings and water colors). It proved to be a wise decision as it led to international recognition. He also did some lithographic work. In 1833, together with Wijnand Nuyen, he traveled through France, Belgium and Germany and became the tutor of C.P. et Hoen, J.C. Hofman, C. Rochussen and Johan Hendrik Weissenbruch. Many of his paintings were bought by German, Dutch and French kings.
Until 1857 he lived in The Hague, after which he settled in Amsterdam where he joined the Royal Academy . He received several awards: in 1845 Waldorp was appointed Knight of the Order of Leopold by the Belgian king, Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion in 1847 by King William II and Knight in the Order of the Oak Crown in 1849 by William.
In The Hague and Amsterdam there are streets named after Anthonie Waldorp.