Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke.
The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful.
Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology.
Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists.
Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of Leonardo Da Vinci :. | La Belle Ferronniere | The Last Supper-l | Portrait of Cecilia Gallarani | The Baptism of Christ | Bacchus (mk05) |
Related Artists:Jean Honore Fragonard
Jean Honore Fragonard Locations
French painter. He studied with François Boucher in Paris c. 1749. He subsequently won a Prix de Rome, and while in Italy (1756 ?C 61) he traveled extensively and executed many sketches of the countryside, especially the gardens at the Villa d Este at Tivoli, and developed a great admiration for the work of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. In 1765 his large historical painting Coresus Sacrifices Himself to Save Callirhoë was purchased for Louis XV and won Fragonard election to the French Royal Academy. He soon abandoned this style to concentrate on landscapes in the manner of Jacob van Ruisdael, portraits, and the decorative, erotic outdoor party scenes for which he became famous (e.g., The Swing, c. 1766). The gentle hedonism of such party scenes epitomized the Rococo style. Although the greater part of his active life was passed during the Neoclassical period, he continued to paint in a Rococo idiom until shortly before the French Revolution, when he lost his patrons and livelihood.
Maurice Brazil Prendergast
(October 10, 1858 - February 1, 1924) was a U.S. Post-Impressionist artist who worked in oil, watercolor, and monotype. Technically, he was a member of The Eight, but the delicacy of his compositions and mosaic-like beauty of his designs had little in common with the philosophy of the group.
Prendergast was born in St. John's, a city in Newfoundland, Canada. With the failure of his father's subarctic trading post, the family moved to Boston. Jacob Koninck
(c. 1615, Amsterdam - c. 1695, Copenhagen), was a Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
According to Houbraken he lent his books on perspective to Johannes Verkolje, who became better than he was at perspective drawing.He was a disciple of Adriaen van de Velde who became a popular painter in Copenhagen where he painted for the court of Christian V of Denmark.
According to the RKD he was the uncle of Salomon Koninck, a pupil of David Colijns and became the teacher of his son Jacob II and his younger brother Philips Koninck.He was in Dordrecht from 1633-1636, Rotterdam from 1637-1645, The Hague from 1647-1651, back in Amsterdam in 1658 (when he probably lent young Verkolje his perspective books), and moved to Denmark in 1676.