LEONARDO da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519 Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke. The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful. Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology. Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists. Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of LEONARDO da Vinci :. | Reverse side of the portrait of Ginevra de' Benci sg | Jacopo Bellini | Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) sdg | Last Supper (mk08) | Madonna with the Yarnwinder |
Related Artists:BLANCHARD, Jacques
French Baroque Era Painter, 1600-1638
He trained with his maternal uncle Nicolas Bollery (c. 1550/60-1630) from 1613 to 1618. He then set off for Italy but stopped at Lyon to work in the studio of Horace Le Blanc. Le Blanc left for Paris in 1623, and Blanchard is known to have finished a number of his works left in Lyon, including perhaps the Virgin and Child with a Bishop and a Woman Holding a Baby (Lyon, St Denis). At the end of October 1624 he reached Rome in the company of his brother Jean Blanchard, remaining there until April or May 1626. He was then in Venice until 1628, when he returned to Lyon via Turin.Peeter Danckers de Rij
Pieter, Peeter, or Peter Danckerts de Rij, Dankers de Ry, or Peteris Dankersas (1605, Amsterdam - 9 August 1661, Rudnik) was a Dutch Golden Age painter.
He was the son of Cornelis Danckerts de Ry, member of a large family of printers, painters and engravers.
Adam Kazanowski - by Peeter Danckers de Rij.
Example of Dankerts-Sandrart collaboration in print of PC Hooft. This 1642 engraving was painted by Sandrart, etched by Reinier van Persijn, and printed by Danckerts. The poem in Latin at the bottom was written by Caspar Barlaeus.Cornelis is mentioned in Houbraken's Schouburg as being one of the many teachers of Joachim von Sandrart in 1640-41, though considering Sandrart's age and experience (he had just returned to the North from his Grand Tour to Italy), this was more of a collaboration. Since Filippo Baldinucci later wrote a biograhical sketch on Pietro Danckerse de Ry in his list of artists called the Notizie, it is possible that Danckerts visited Italy at some time. In any case Sandrart engraved some of Peter's paintings after this period. Peter was active until 1640 in Amsterdam, and then he moved to Warsaw, Danzig, and Vilnius in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was active in Poland as the court painter and architect of the Polish King Władysław IV Vasa. According to Houbraken a poem was written in his honor that applauds his work in Poland. He died as the result of a highway robbery in the Redininkai Forest near Vilnius, Lithuania.Theodore Robinson
Theodore Robinson (July 3, 1852 ?C April 2, 1896) was an American painter best known for his impressionist landscapes. He was one of the first American artists to take up impressionism in the late 1880s, visiting Giverny and developing a close friendship with Claude Monet. Several of his works are considered masterpieces of American Impressionism.
In 1884 Robinson returned to France where he would live for the next eight years, visiting America only occasionally. Robinson gravitated to Giverny, which had become a center of French impressionist art under the influence of Claude Monet.
La Debacle, 1892, collection: Scripps College, Claremont, CaliforniaHistorians are unclear when Robinson met Monet, but by 1888 their friendship was enough for Robinson to move in next door to the famous impressionist. Robinson's art shifted to a more traditional impressionistic manner during this time, likely due to Monet's influence. While a number of American artists had gathered at Giverny, none were as close to Monet as Robinson. Monet offered advice to Robinson, and he likewise solicited Robinson for opinions on Monet's own works in progress.
At Giverny, Robinson painted what art historians regard as some of his finest works. These depicted the surrounding countryside in different weather, in the plein air tradition, sometimes with women shown in leisurely poses. An example of his mature work during this period is La Debacle (1892) in the collection of Scripps College, Claremont California.