LEONARDO da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519 Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke. The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful. Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology. Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists. Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of LEONARDO da Vinci :. | The Annunciation | The Last Supper (detail) sg | Study Fur the Trivulzio-monument | Profile of a child | The muscles of Thorax and shoulders in a lebnden person |
Related Artists:Charles Meynier
Charles Meynier (1763, Paris - 1832, Paris) was a French painter. A student of François-Andre Vincent, Meynier won the second prize in the 1789 prix de Rome competition. He made designs for the bas-reliefs and statues on the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and was, from 1816 onward, a member of the Academie des Beaux-Arts
(Athens, 1849-1884) was a major Greek impressionist painter of the 19th century that gained a great reputation as an artist initially in Belgium.
Pantazis studied painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts from 1861 to 1871 with Nikiforos Lytras as his teacher. He continued for one year his studies in Munich and he then left for Marseille and Paris.In Paris he was taught by Gustave Courbet and Antoine Chintreuil. At this period he was introduced to the works of Eugene Boudin, Johan Barthold Jongkind and of the impressionists Manet, Camille Pissarro and Degas.
In 1873, with a reference letter from Manet, he moved to Brussels in Belgium. A notable Greek wine businessman Jean Économou was particularly interested in his skills and commissioned a large number of Pantazis paintings. In Belgium, Pantazis became a member of an anti-academic artistic group called Circle de la pâte (meaning the circle of colour), and a member of Les XX.
He became close friends with painter Guillaume Vogels and sculptor Auguste Philippette whose sister he married few years later. In Brussels, initially he worked as a home decorator for Guillaume Vogels but later he was dedicated to painting as he became increasingly known for his talent. In 1878 he represented Greece at the International Art Biennalle of Paris. He died before he turned 35 years old from chronic tuberculosis.
Thomas Malton (1748 - 7 March 1804), the younger, was an English painter of topographical and architectural views, and an engraver. J M W Turner and Thomas Girtin were amongst his pupils. He is designated the younger to differentiate him from his father Thomas Malton the elder.
Malton was born in London, the son of Thomas Malton the elder, a notable architectural draughtsman and writer on geometry. He was with his father during the latter's residence in Dublin, Ireland, and then passed three years in the office of James Gandon the architect, in London. In 1774 Malton received a premium from the Society of Arts. He entered the Royal Academy and in 1782 gained a gold medal for his design for a theatre. In 1773 he sent the Academy a view of Covent Garden, and was afterwards a constant exhibitor, chiefly of views of London streets and buildings, drawn in Indian ink and tinted. In these there is little attempt at pictorial effect, but their extreme accuracy in the architectural details renders them of great interest and value as topographical records. They are enlivened with groups of figures, in which Malton is said to have been assisted by Francis Wheatley.
After leaving Ireland, Malton appears to have always lived in London - with the exception of a brief stay at Bath in 1780. From 1783 to 1789 he resided in Conduit Street (London), and at an evening drawing class which he held there, received as pupils Thomas Girtin and young J M W Turner, whose father brought him to be taught perspective. Turner paid tribute to him in later life by saying My real master was Tom Malton.
In 1791 Malton removed to Great Titchfield Street, and finally, in 1796, to Long Acre. He made a few of the drawings for Watts's Seats of the Nobility and Gentry published in 1779, and executed some large aquatints of buildings in both London and Bath, being one of the first to avail himself of the newly introduced art of aquatinta for the purpose of multiplying copies of his views. He also painted some scenes for Covent Garden Theatre.
In 1792 Malton published the work by which he is now best known, A Picturesque Tour through the Cities of London and Westminster, illustrated with a hundred aquatint plates. Between 1798 -1800 he produced Views from Cambridge, and at the time of his death was engaged upon a similar series of views of Oxford, some of which appeared in parts in 1802, and were reissued with others in 1810.
Malton died in Long Acre, London on 7 March 1804, leaving a widow and six children. His portrait, painted by Gilbert Stuart, was engraved by William Barney in 1806. A portrait of his son Charles, when a child, drawn by Sir Thomas Lawrence, was engraved by F C Lewis.
Malton's brother James Malton was also a notable artist, draughtsman and engraver.