LEONARDO da Vinci
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519
Italian High Renaissance Painter and Inventor, 1452-1519 Florentine Renaissance man, genius, artist in all media, architect, military engineer. Possibly the most brilliantly creative man in European history, he advertised himself, first of all, as a military engineer. In a famous letter dated about 1481 to Ludovico Sforza, of which a copy survives in the Codice Atlantico in Milan, Leonardo asks for employment in that capacity. He had plans for bridges, very light and strong, and plans for destroying those of the enemy. He knew how to cut off water to besieged fortifications, and how to construct bridges, mantlets, scaling ladders, and other instruments. He designed cannon, very convenient and easy of transport, designed to fire small stones, almost in the manner of hail??grape- or case-shot (see ammunition, artillery). He offered cannon of very beautiful and useful shapes, quite different from those in common use and, where it is not possible to employ cannon ?? catapults, mangonels and trabocchi and other engines of wonderful efficacy not in general use. And he said he made armoured cars, safe and unassailable, which will enter the serried ranks of the enemy with their artillery ?? and behind them the infantry will be able to follow quite unharmed, and without any opposition. He also offered to design ships which can resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon, and powder and smoke. The large number of surviving drawings and notes on military art show that Leonardo claims were not without foundation, although most date from after the Sforza letter. Most of the drawings, including giant crossbows (see bows), appear to be improvements on existing machines rather than new inventions. One exception is the drawing of a tank dating from 1485-8 now in the British Museum??a flattened cone, propelled from inside by crankshafts, firing guns. Another design in the British Museum, for a machine with scythes revolving in the horizontal plane, dismembering bodies as it goes, is gruesomely fanciful. Most of the other drawings are in the Codice Atlantico in Milan but some are in the Royal Libraries at Windsor and Turin, in Venice, or the Louvre and the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Two ingenious machines for continuously firing arrows, machine-gun style, powered by a treadmill are shown in the Codice Atlantico. A number of other sketches of bridges, water pumps, and canals could be for military or civil purposes: dual use technology. Leonardo lived at a time when the first artillery fortifications were appearing and the Codice Atlantico contains sketches of ingenious fortifications combining bastions, round towers, and truncated cones. Models constructed from the drawings and photographed in Calvi works reveal forts which would have looked strikingly modern in the 19th century, and might even feature in science fiction films today. On 18 August 1502 Cesare Borgia appointed Leonardo as his Military Engineer General, although no known building by Leonardo exists. Leonardo was also fascinated by flight. Thirteen pages with drawings for man-powered aeroplanes survive and there is one design for a helicoidal helicopter. Leonardo later realized the inadequacy of the power a man could generate and turned his attention to aerofoils. Had his enormous abilities been concentrated on one thing, he might have invented the modern glider. Related Paintings of LEONARDO da Vinci :. | Maria with Child and St. Anna | Anatomy of the Schadels | Battle of Anghiari | Portrait of Ginevra de' Benci sg | Annunciation (detail) dfe |
Related Artists:Walter Griffin
Walter Burley Griffin November 24, 1876?CFebruary 11, 1937) was a US architect and landscape architect, who is best known for his role in designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. He has also been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and the first use of reinforced concrete.
Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin went on to develop a unique modern style. For much of his career Griffin worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In the 28 years of their architectural partnership, the Griffins designed over 350 building, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.George goodwin kilburne
was a London based genre painter specialising in accurately drawn interiors with figures. He favoured the watercolour medium, although he did also work in oils, pencil and in his early career engraving.George was born on the 24th July 1839 in Norfolk. He was apprenticed for five years to the Dalziel brothers in London, studying wood engraving. He married Jenny Dalziel, the daughter of Robert Dalziel - they had three sons and two daughters: George Goodwin Jnr who also became an artist; Charles Robert, William Richard, Florence and Mary Maud. They all lived together at Hawkhurst House, Steeles Road, Hampstead. George abandoned wood engraving for the more versatile and profitable mediums of watercolour and oil painting. His apprenticeship in engraving enhanced the accuracy and detail of his paintings. He quickly became on of the most sought after and well known artists in England. George's wife Janet died in March 1883 and George later married Edith Golightly with who he had two girls, Constance Ivy and Edith May. George's paintings often portrayed the upper classes and ultra-fashionable female beauties in opulent settings. His depiction of this beauty was heightened by his attention to detail with dress, and richly decorated interiors. th. hildebrandt
Ferdinand Theodor Hildebrandt, född 2 juli 1804 i Stettin, död 29 september 1874 i Dusseldorf, var en tysk målare.
Hildebrandt började sina konstnärliga studier i Berlin under Wilhelm Schadow, vilken han 1826 följde till Dusseldorf, och blev en av den där grundade skolans mest framstående lärjungar. 1825 framträdde han med Faust, 1826 med Cordelia och kung Lear och 1828 med Tankred döpande Klorinda. Ännu större popularitet vann han 1835 för Mordet på kung Edvards söner. Bland hans genrebilder har i synnerhet Krigaren och hans son (1832, Berlins nationalgalleri) blivit känd. Hildebrandt, som för övrigt utförde illustrationer och porträtt, kallades på sin tid realist, men han var knappast fri från den melodramatiska ton och den sentimentala inställning, som tillhörde skolan.